PA Title 67 § 201.2. Definitions.


 The following words and terms, when used in this chapter, have the following meanings, unless the context clearly indicates otherwise:

   ADT�Average Daily Traffic�The total volume of traffic during a number of whole days�more than 1 day and less than 1 year�divided by the number of days in that period.

   Acceleration lane�A speed-change lane for the purpose of:

     (i) Enabling a vehicle entering a roadway to increase its speed to a rate at which it can safely merge with through traffic.

     (ii) Providing the necessary merging distance.

     (iii) Giving the main roadway traffic the necessary time and distance to make appropriate adjustments.

   Alternate route�A highway or series of highways that may be used by drivers to travel from a given point to a given point instead of using a highway that has been temporarily closed or partially closed.

   Angle parking�Parking other than parallel parking, that is, parking so that the longitudinal axis of the vehicle is not parallel with the edge of the roadway.

   Assemblage�A gathering of people without vehicles which interferes with the movement of pedestrian or vehicular traffic on a highway.

   Average day�A typical day, Tuesday through Thursday, with traffic volumes normally and repeatedly found at the location.

   Average grade�The total change in elevation divided by the total distance along the roadway.

   Capacity�The maximum hourly rate at which persons or vehicles can reasonably be expected to traverse a point or uniform section of a lane or roadway during a given time period under prevailing roadway and traffic conditions.

   Channelized turn lanes�The separation of turning traffic movements into definite paths of travel by means of traffic islands or pavement markings.

   Compatibility with other traffic�The ability of a particular kind or class of vehicle or load to travel safely in a traffic stream with the other types of traffic.

   Conventional highway�A highway other than an expressway or freeway.

   Department�The Department of Transportation of the Commonwealth.

   District engineer�The engineer who is in charge of any one of the 11 Department Engineering District Offices.

   Divided highway�A highway divided into two or more roadways and so constructed as to impede vehicular traffic between the roadways by providing an intervening space, physical barrier or clearly indicated dividing section. Pavement markings or singing divisors shall not be construed as creating a divided highway. For purposes of clarification, ��separate roadway,�� as used in 75 Pa.C.S. §  3345(g) (relating to meeting or overtaking school bus), shall be afforded this definition.

   Element�Any one of the 22 specific engineering parameters from which calculations, measurements or counts are based, and used, in part, to determine the outcome of a study and to recommend a particular course of action.

   Emergency traffic signal�A traffic signal designed to obtain the right-of-way for an emergency vehicle during an emergency.

   Emergency vehicle�A fire department vehicle, police vehicle, sheriff vehicle, ambulance, blood delivery vehicle, armed forces emergency vehicle, one vehicle operated by a coroner or chief county medical examiner and one vehicle operated by a chief deputy coroner or deputy chief county medical examiner used for answering emergency calls, or other vehicle designated by the State Police under 75 Pa.C.S. §  6106 (relating to designation of emergency vehicles by Pennsylvania State Police), or a privately owned vehicle used in answering an emergency call when used by one or more of the following:

     (i) A police chief and assistant chief.

     (ii) A fire chief, assistant chief and, when a fire company has three or more fire vehicles, a second or third assistant chief.

     (iii) A fire police captain and fire police lieutenant.

     (iv) An ambulance corps commander and assistant commander.

     (v) A river rescue commander and assistant commander.

     (vi) A county emergency management coordinator.

     (vii) A fire marshall.

   Engineering and traffic study�An orderly examination or analysis of physical features and traffic conditions conforming to generally accepted engineering standards and practices for the purpose of ascertaining the need or lack of need for a particular action by the Department or local authorities.

   Entrance ramp�An interconnecting roadway of a traffic interchange, or any connection between highways at different levels, or between parallel highways, on which vehicles may enter a designated roadway.

   Expressway�A divided arterial highway for through traffic with partial control of access and generally with grade separations at major intersections.

   Flashing beacon�A traffic signal at an intersection consisting of one or more sections of a standard traffic signal head having either flashing-circular-yellow or flashing-circular-red indications in each face or other permissible combinations in each face.

   Freeway�A highway to which the only means of ingress and egress is by interchange ramps.

   Grade�The up or down slope in the longitudinal direction of the highway, expressed in percent, which is the number of units of change in elevation per 100 units of horizontal distance (an upward slope is a positive grade; a downward slope is a negative grade).

   Highway�The entire width between the boundary lines of every publicly maintained way when any part of it is open to the use of the public for purposes of vehicular travel. The term includes a roadway open to the use of the public for vehicular travel on grounds of a college or university, public or private school or public or historical park or airport.

   Intersection�The term includes the following:

     (i) The area embraced within the prolongation or connection of the lateral curb lines; or, if none, the lateral boundary lines of the roadways of two highways which join one another at, or approximately at, right angles; or the area within which vehicles traveling upon different highways joining at any other angle may come in conflict.

     (ii) When a highway includes two roadways 30 feet or more apart, then every crossing of each roadway of the divided highway by an intersecting highway shall be regarded as a separate intersection. In the event the intersecting highway also includes two roadways 30 feet or more apart, then every crossing of two roadways of the highways shall be regarded as a separate intersection.

   Jurisdiction�The limits within which authority may be exercised.

   Kinds and classes�Specific recognizable categories and subcategories of traffic. Kinds refers to such broad categories as pedestrians, bicycles, motorcycles, cars, trucks, buses and tractors; classes refers to subcategories such as school children, adults, elderly individuals and handicapped persons for pedestrians, and single-unit, tractor-trailers, truck trailers and five-axle trucks for trucks.

   Lane-use-control signals�A traffic signal which is erected overhead to control the direction of vehicular traffic movement in an individual lane.

   Local authorities�State agencies other than the Department, and county, municipal and other local boards or bodies having authority to enact regulations relating to traffic. The term includes governing bodies of colleges, universities, public and private schools and public and historical parks and airport authorities except where those authorities are located within counties of the first class or counties of the second class.

   Long-term operation�A work area that is not within the definition of a short-term operation.

   Major arterial highway�A highway primarily for through traffic, usually on a continuous route but not having access control.

   Major street�The roadway at an intersection normally carrying the major volume of vehicular traffic.

   Median�The portion of a divided highway separating the traveled ways for traffic in opposite directions.

   Minor street�The roadway at an intersection normally carrying the minor volume of vehicular traffic.

   Multiway stop�An intersection where three or more intersection approaches are required to stop, or where, in the case of the intersection of two one-way streets, both streets are required to stop.

   Numbered traffic route�A highway that has been assigned an Interstate, United States or Pennsylvania traffic route number.

   Official traffic-control device�Signs, signals, markings and devices authorized in Chapter 203 or 211 (relating to work zone traffic control; and official traffic control devices) and consistent with the basic rules of the road established by 75 Pa.C.S. (relating to Vehicle Code), and placed or erected for the purpose of regulating, warning or guiding traffic by authority of a public body or official having jurisdiction over the roadway.

   One-way couplet�A pair of one-way streets in opposite directions that are usually located close together and on which traffic flows in opposite directions.

   Parking�The term includes the following:

     (i) When permitted, the temporary storing of a vehicle, whether occupied or not, off the roadway.

     (ii) When prohibited, the halting of a vehicle, whether occupied or not, except momentarily for the purpose of and while actually engaged in loading or unloading property or passengers.

   Parking lane�A lane of a highway where parking is normally allowed, even during peak hours.

   Pedestrian activity�Pedestrians crossing the roadway or infringing upon the flow of traffic.

   Pedestrian volume�The number of pedestrians using a particular location, such as a crosswalk, either during a peak hour or an average day.

   Platoon movement�Closely grouped vehicles moving over a roadway.

   Procession�A group of individuals, vehicles, animals or objects moving along a highway in a way that interferes with the normal movement of traffic. The term does not include a funeral caravan or a military convoy.

   Progressive signal system�A signal system where a vehicle, traveling at a predetermined speed, entering the system in the progressed direction during the green indication of the first signal, should arrive at all other signals during the green indication of that signal, if the progress of the vehicle is not unduly impeded.

   Railroad grade crossing�One or more railroad tracks, but not street car tracks, which intersect or cross a highway at the same level or grade as the highway.

   Right-of-way�The right of one vehicle or pedestrian to proceed in a lawful manner in preference to another vehicle or pedestrian approaching under such circumstances of direction, speed and proximity as to give rise to danger of collision unless one grants precedence to the other.

   Roadway�That portion of a highway improved, designed or ordinarily used for vehicular travel, exclusive of the sidewalk, berm or shoulder even though the sidewalk, berm or shoulder is used by pedalcycles. If a highway includes two or more separate roadways, the term refers to each roadway separately but not to all of the roadways collectively.

   School�A facility for education wherein a resident of this Commonwealth can legally fulfill compulsory school requirements, including kindergarten through grade 12.

   School zone�A portion of a highway which abuts a school property and is used by students to walk to or from school. The limits of the zone may extend beyond the school property lines to improve sight distance or to encompass a school crosswalk, except that the length of the zone may not be greater than 1,600 feet.

   Secretary�The Secretary of the Department.

   Selected weight�The weight at or below which a particular kind or class of vehicle is permitted to operate in excess of the hazardous grade speed limit but not in excess of the posted speed limit, weather and road conditions permitting.

   Short-term operation�The conduct of work on a construction, maintenance or utility project encompassing one or more of the following:

     (i) Daylight work areas.

     (ii) Emergency nighttime work areas where there is work in active progress.

     (iii) Work areas of relatively short duration where work begins during daylight and continues in active progress during hours of darkness.

   Special activity�An event not of a normal nature or of a construction, utility or maintenance nature. Examples include parades, sidewalk fairs, block parties, races and recreational events which encroach on a street.

   Speed restriction�A restriction placed upon a highway which legally establishes the maximum speed which all or certain kinds and classes of vehicles may travel.

   Standing�The halting of a vehicle, whether occupied or not, except momentarily for the purpose of and while actually engaged in receiving or discharging passengers.

   State-designated highway�A highway or bridge on the system of highways and bridges over which the Department has assumed or has been legislatively given jurisdiction.

   Stop or stopping�The term includes the following:

     (i) When required, complete cessation from movement.

     (ii) When prohibited, halting, even momentarily, of a vehicle, whether occupied or not, except when necessary to avoid conflict with other traffic or in compliance with the directions of a police officer or traffic-control sign or signal.

   Street�A highway.

   Through highway�A highway or portion of a highway on which vehicular traffic is given preferential right-of-way, and at the entrances to which vehicular traffic from intersecting highways is required by law to yield the right-of-way to vehicles on the through highway in obedience to a stop sign, yield sign or other official traffic-control device when the signs or devices are erected in accordance with Chapter 211. Expressways and freeways shall be through highways.

   Traffic-control signal�A device, whether manually, electrically or mechanically operated, by which traffic is alternately directed to stop and permitted to proceed.

   Traffic restriction�A restriction designated by a traffic-control device to regulate the speed, direction, movement, placement or kind of traffic using any highway.

   Traffic signal�A power-operated traffic-control device, except a sign, warning light, flashing arrow panel or steady-burn electric lamp by which traffic is warned or directed to take some specific action. The term includes traffic-control signals, pedestrian signals, beacons, lane-use-control signals, movable bridge signals, emergency traffic signals, firehouse warning devices, ramp and highway metering signals and weigh station signals.

   Travel lane�A lane of a highway which is used for travel by vehicles; a lane in which parking is permitted during off-peak hours but which may be restricted for use as a travel lane during peak hours to obtain greater traffic movement.

   Urban district�The territory contiguous to and including a street which is built up with structures devoted to business, industry or dwelling houses situated at intervals of less than 100 feet on one, on both, or on alternate sides of the street for a distance of 1/4 mile or more. The width of intersecting highways shall not be considered in measuring distances between structures.

   Vehicular traffic conflicts�Conflicts that usually occur between turning vehicles or between a turning vehicle and a straight-through vehicle at an intersection, or between weaving, merging, or diverging vehicles.

   Warrant�A specific condition, either visually observed or determined based on the results of data collection including traffic counts or physical measurements, used to authorize, but not mandate, the installation of traffic signals, stop signs, multiway stop signs or yield signs. The satisfaction of a warrant is not in itself justification for the installation of traffic signals, stop signs, multiway stop signs or yield signs.

   Weekday�Any day Monday through Friday.


   The provisions of this §  201.2 amended under the Vehicle Code, 75 Pa.C.S. § §  6103(a), 6105, 6109(e) and 6122(b).


   The provisions of this §  201.1 adopted August 26, 1977, effective August 27, 1977, 7 Pa.B. 2409; renumbered May 15, 1981, 11 Pa.B. 1678; amended October 8, 1982, effective October 9, 1982, 12 Pa.B. 3676; readopted December 11, 1987, effective December 12, 1987, 17 Pa.B. 5132; amended December 10, 1993, effective December 11, 1993, 23 Pa.B. 5791. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages (134644) and (122845) to (122850).

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